What are the behaviours of metals and nonmetals?


What are the behaviours of metals and nonmetals?

Today  in this article, I will discuss on some important notes on metals and non metals.

     *What are elements? How are they classified?


    The matters which are composed of only one type of particles are known as elements.
                  Elements are of three types:-(i) Metals (ii) Non metals. (iii) Metalloids.

    *what are metals and non metals?Give examples.


    Elements which are generally hard,lustrous, malleable, ductile and give up their valance shell electrons in the chemical reactions are known as metals.
    e.g;Sodium(Na),Magnesium(Mg),Aluminium(Al) Gold (Au) etc.

    Elements which are generally brittle, non lustrous, non malleable ,non ductile and accept electrons in the chemical reactions are known as non metals.e.g; Oxygen(O₂)
    Carbon(C), Silicon(Si) etc.

    *write some physical properties of metals and nonmetals.


    Some physical properties of metals are :-
    (i) Metals are generally hard.e.g; Iron (Fe),
    Copper(Cu).exceptions:- Sodium(Na), Potassium(K) , are soft metals; Mercury(Hg) is a liquid metal.

    (ii) Metals are malleable.e.g; Gold (Au) and Silver(Ag) are beaten to make various ornaments.
    (iii) Metals are ductile.e.g; Aluminium(Al),Copper (Cu) are cut and produce narrow electric wires for electric connections.
    (iv) Metals are lustrous, e.g; Gold, Silver,Copper etc.
    (v) Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity except bismuth.
    Some physical properties of non metals are:-
     (i) Non metals are brittle.
     (ii) They are poor conductors of heat snd electricity,except graphite.
     (iii) Non metals are non lustrous.
      (iv) They are non malleable.

    *Write some Chemical properties of metal and non metals.


      Some chemical properties of metals are:-
    (i) Metals react with dilute acids to produce metallic salt and hydrogen.
    e.g; When sodium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid it produces sodium chloride(salt) and hydrogen.
      The reaction is given by:-

        2Na(s) +2HCl(aq)-------->2Nacl(s) + H₂(g)

          (ii) Metals oxides are basic when they partially or completely dissolve in water they produce bases or alkalies.
    e.g; Aluminium is a less reactive metal when its oxide(Al₂O₃) dissolve partially in water it produces base [Al(OH)₃]
    The reaction can be given by:-

    What is metallic Behaviour?

    On the other hand Sodium(Na) is a very reactive metal when Na₂O dissolves completely in water it produces NaOH alkali.

    The reaction can be given by:-

    What is metallic Behaviour?

         (iii) Metals are electro positive elements, in the chemical reactions they give up their valence shell electrons to complete their octet rule to become stable and produce cations.e.g; In the chemical reactions Na give up its lone electron and produce Na⁺ cation to complete its octet and become stable.

    What are the characteristics of metals and nonmetals?

    (iv) Metals react with water to form bases or alkalies and hydrogen gas.e.g; When potassium(K) is dissolved in water it produces potassium hydroxide (KOH) alkali and H₂.
       The reaction is given by:-

    2K(s) + 2H₂O(aq)----------> 2KOH(aq) + H₂(g)
    (Potassium hydroxide)

    Some chemical properties of non metals are:-
    (i) Non metallic oxides are generally acidic when they are dissolved in water they produce acids. e.g; When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, it produce carbonic acid.
    The reaction can be given by:-

    What are  the behaviours of metals and nonmetals?

    (ii)  Non metals are electro negative, in the chemical reaction non metals acept electrons to complete octet and become stable also produce anions.e.g; In the chemical reaction oxygen accepts one pair of electrons to produce O⁻² anion and complete octet to become stable.

    O + 2e ------------> O⁻²

    (iii) Non metals react with oxygen to produce non metallic oxides.e.g; When sulphur is burnt in air, it produces SO₂
     The reaction can be given by:-

    S + O₂(g) ----------> SO₂(g)

    (Sulphur dioxide)
    *What are metalloids?


    The elements which show both the characters of metals and non metals are known as metalloids. e.g; Silicon(Si),  Boron(B),Arsenic(As).

    *What are noble gas or inert gas?


    The elements which have two (in case of 'He') or eight electrons in their outermost valence shell are stable they do not participate in any chemical reactions,even they have no tendency to gain or loss of electrons as their outermost shells are duplate or octet filled, these elements are called noble gases or inert gases. e.g; Helium(He), Neon(Ne), Xenon(Xe), Radon (Rn),Krypton (kr) etc.

    *What is valence shells, valence electrons and valency?


    The outer most shell of an element is called valence shells.

        The number of electrons present in the outer most shell of an element is called valence electrons.
          In case of a metal atom the number of valence electrons present in the outer most shell is it's valency. e.g; The electronic  configuration of 'Na' metal is 2,8,1
    The outer most shell electrons or valence electrons of Sodium (Na) atom is 1
    ∴ The valency of Na is =1
    In case of a non metal atom eight minus number of valence electrons of that atom is it's valency.
    e.g; Electronic configuration of Sulphur (S) atom is 2,8,6, Its valence electrons 6
    ∴ Valency of Sulphur is = 8-6 =2

    *What is octet rule?


    Filling up 8 electrons in the outer most shell or valence shell of atoms either by transferring from metal atom to a non metal atom or by sharing between two non metal atoms is termed as octet rule.

    *What are bases and alkalies


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    What is activity or reactivity series of metals?

    Answer: Metals are arranged from least reactive metals to highest reactive metals and in this way a series is formed which is known as activity or reactivity series of metals.

    Arrange the following metals in increasing order of their reactivity:- Hg,K,Fe,Al, Au,Na

    Answer:- The increasing order of reactivity of the above metals will be:- Au,Hg,Fe,Al,Na,K

    Name two soft metals.

    Answer :- The name of two soft metals is:- (i) Sodium (Na) (ii) Potassium (K)

    Name two alkaline earth metals.

    Answer :-The name of two alkaline earth metals is:-(i)Magnesium(Mg) (ii) Aluminium(Al)

    Name a metal which is bad conductor of heat and electricity.

    Answer:- Bismuth (Bi)

    What are cations and anions?

    Answer :- All positive ions which are formed when metals give up their balance shell electrons in chemical reactions to complete their octet are called cations.e.g;Na⁺, Mg⁺² …. All negative ions which are formed when non metals accept electrons which they get from metals or metal type radicals to complete their octet are called anions. e.g; O⁻²,N⁻³,...

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